chamomile essential oil contains bisabolol for skin benefits

Bisabolol: Spotlight on Effective, Active Botanicals

Bisabolol is a natural skincare ingredient that is derived from plants. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties, making it ideal for skincare products. In addition, bisabolol can be used to soothe skin irritation and redness and treat acne and other skin conditions. Because of its anti aging and anti-inflammatory properties, we think it's one of the best cosmetics ingredients for personal care products.

We love bisabolol because it is an oil-soluble, active ingredient! This will be our first in a series of articles about active botanicals, or what we like to call performance botanicals that work

Chemical Structure and Extraction

Bisabolol, also called alpha-bisabolol, is a terpene that is part of a group of naturally occurring compounds derived from plants. It is extracted from German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla or Matricaria recutita) or the bark of the Candeia (Vanillosmopsis erythropappa) tree of Brazil. The extraction process is similar to those used when distilling essential oils and the bisabolol terpene is similar in the sense that it is an active, aromatic compound. For example, the active ingredients in chamomile essential oil include volatile oils (alpha-bisabolol and bisabolol oxide) and flavonoids (luteolin and quercetin). Once the raw oil is extracted, it is refined to isolate the desired bisabolol and remove the other components. 

In addition to the bisabolol extracted from plants, it can also be synthesized in the lab. This can be done by using techniques called synthetic biology/molecular engineering. The process involves using organisms like yeast or bacteria with human enzymes or biologic catalysts to create the nature-identical molecule, usually through fermentation. This has exciting implications for sustainability because you don't need to cut down trees.

Scientists can use another chemical method to manufacture bisabolol synthetically. However, the carbon source tends to be petroleum-based, and the resultant bisabolol is of lower purity levels.

Biological Activity

Sesquiterpenes make up a large class of terpenes known for their biological activity. The bisabolol molecule has anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and antioxidant properties. Much of the research of this molecule was performed on animals, so the proposed mechanisms can't be directly assumed as present in humans. With that said, all the following effects have been shown, which makes alpha bisabolol in skin care an important ingredient.

    • Anti-inflammation
    • Improved healing
    • Increasing prostaglandins (chemicals secreted by the body) that soothe pain
    • Inhibiting bacterial growth
    • Inhibiting oxidative stress and damage from free radicals
    • Enhancing skin penetration of other molecules
    • Interfering with melanin production

There has also been research done to show effects related to anti-anxiety and improved gastrointestinal effects, likely why drinking chamomile tea is so popular.

Bisabolol Benefits For Skin

With the impressive list of biological activities described above, you can expect to see bisabolol in many skin care products, particularly those for skin that is prone to irritation. A chemical that is naturally occuring, skin soothing, anti microbial, and works to reduce inflammation, improve healing, and enhance penetration - what more could you ask for?

The types of alpha bisabolol effects and skin benefits you could see are:

    • Reduced redness from dryness or irritation
    • Soothing and calming of skin affected by conditions like eczema and rosacea
    • Improvement in visible acne, scar appearance, or the healing process
    • Improvements in fine lines caused by oxidative stress/aging
    • Improvement in the look of hyperpigmentation
    • Moisturization and relief from dryness, itch, flaking
    • Damaged skin barrier repair
Bisabolol Skin Benefits Graphic by bareLUXE Skincare

 

 

Is Bisabolol Safe? Can You Use it During Pregnancy?

Bisabolol is a safe and natural skincare ingredient. It is an anti-irritant, meaning it is most likely to soothe and improve skin that is already irritated. In fact, it's often recommended for patients with conditions like eczema.

Bisabolol side effects and allergies are rare. However, discontinue use and consult with your doctor if you experience any adverse reactions. If you think you might be reacting to bisabolol, check the ingredient list. German chamomile essential oil can contain over 50% (up to 90%). However, as with all essential oils, it will include other phytochemicals, adding scent to your product. This is important because many people have skin reactions to essential oils, especially if used on your face.  

There is no reason to worry about using bisabolol-containing products on your skin if pregnant or breastfeeding.

Is Bisabolol Production Sustainable and Environmentally Friendly?

There are sustainability concerns with mass harvesting crops for steam distillation and large quantity production of essential oils. For example, one estimate published that the Brazilian Candeia tree bark produces about 7 kg of oil per tonne of 12-year-old wood. This is worrisome due to the alarming growth of consumerism today and the potential for deforestation.

From a skincare manufacturer standpoint, we can choose between bisabolol that is traditionally extracted and refined, bio-engineered/nature-identical, or chemically produced (but requires petroleum-based feedstock). At the moment, bareLUXE uses a natural product that is sustainably sourced from the bark of the Candeia tree. However, we are exploring the bio-engineered options to determine if they are better overall, while still being vegan suitable. 

 

 

References

Russell K, Jacob SE. Bisabolol. Dermatitis. 2010 Jan-Feb;21(1):57-8. PMID: 20137740.Cosmetic Ingredient Review. The Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Bisabolol. International Journal of Toxicology (1999). 18(suppl. 3):33-40.

Joy A. Weydert, Chapter 45 - Recurring Abdominal Pain in Pediatrics, Editor(s): David Rakel, Integrative Medicine (Fourth Edition), Elsevier, 2018, Pages 457-465.e2, ISBN 9780323358682.

Nara K.A. Santos,Fabíola F.G. Rodrigues,Henrique DM. Coutinho,Glauce S.B. Viana &José G.M. Costa (2013), Isolation of alpha-Bisabolol from the Essential Oil of Vanillosmopsis arborea Baker and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity Using Gaseous Contact. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants . 16(6), 826-831.

Guy P. P. Kamatou, Alvaro M. Viljoen (2010). A Review of the Application and Pharmacological Properties of a-Bisabolol and a-Bisabolol-Rich Oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc (2010) 87:1–7.

Arthur Sarrade-Loucheur. Biosynthesis of new alpha-bisabolol derivatives through a synthetic biology approach. Biochemistry, Molecular Biology. INSA de Toulouse, 2020. English. ffNNT : 2020ISAT0003.

Han, G.H., Kim, S.K., Yoon, P.KS. et al. Fermentative production and direct extraction of (−)-α-bisabolol in metabolically engineered Escherichia coliMicrob Cell Fact 15, 185 (2016)

Rocha, N. F. M., Rios, E. R. V., Carvalho, A. M. R., Cerqueira, G. S., de Arajo Lopes, A., Leal, L. K. A. M., Dias, M. L., de Sousa, D. P., de Sousa, F. C. F., (2011). Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of (-)-α-bisabolol in rodents. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol. 384:525-533.

Alves., A. M. H., Gonçalves., J. C. R., Cruz, J. S., Araújo, D. A. M. (2010). Evaluation of the sesquiterpene (-)-α-bisabolol as a novel peripheral nervous blocker. Neuroscience Letters, 472, 11-15.

Magnelli, L., Caldini, R., Schiavone, N., Suzuki H., Chevanne, M. (2010). Differentiating and Apoptotic Dose-Dependent Effects in (-)-α-Bisabolol-Treated Human Endothelial Cells. J. Nat. Prod, 73, 523-526.

Kim, S., Jung, E., Kim, J., Park, Y., Lee, J., Park, D. (2011). Inhibitory effects of (-)-α-bisabolol on LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 49, 2580-2585.

Lee, J., Jun, H., Jung, E., Ha, J., Park, D. (2009). Whitening effect of α-bisabolol in Asian women subjects. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 32, 299-303.

Werner, M., Herling, M., Garbe, B., Theek, C., Tronnier, H., Heinrich, U., Braun, N. (2017). Determination of the Influence of the Antiphlogistic Ingredients Panthenol and Bisabolol on the SPF Value in vivo. Skin Pharmacol Physiol, 30:284-291.

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